Munich Agreement Summary In Hindi
13 décembre 2020
In the spring of 1938, Hitler openly began to support calls from German spokesmen living in the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia for closer relations with Germany. Hitler had recently annexed Austria to Germany and the conquest of Czechoslovakia was the next step in his plan to create a « Greater Germany ». The Czechoslovakian government hoped that Britain and France would help in the event of a German invasion, but British Prime Minister Chamberlain tried to avoid war. He made two trips to Germany in September and offered favorable agreements to Hitler, but Fuhrer responded to his demands. Later, at the meeting, a deception was agreed in advance to influence and pressure Chamberlain: one of Hitler`s accomplices entered the room to inform Hitler of other Germans killed in Czechoslovakia, and Hitler then shouted: « I will avenge each of them. The Czechs must be destroyed.  The meeting ended with Hitler`s refusal to make concessions to the demands of the Allies.  Later that evening, Hitler was concerned that he had gone too far to put pressure on Chamberlain, and he called Chamberlain`s hotel suite to say that he would only accept the annexation of Sudetenland without plans in other areas, provided that Czechoslovakia began evacuating ethnic Chechens from the majority regions of Germany by 8 p.m. on September 26. After being pushed by Chamberlain, Hitler agreed to issue the ultimatum for October 1 (the same date on which Operation Green was to begin).  Hitler then told Chamberlain that it was a concession he wanted to make to the Prime Minister as a « gift », out of respect for the fact that Chamberlain was prepared to back down a little from his previous position.  Hitler added that after the annexation of the Sudetenland, Germany would no longer have territorial rights over Czechoslovakia and would enter into a collective agreement to guarantee the borders of Germany and Czechoslovakia.  After Poland learned that populated territories in Poland were to be transferred to Germany, Poland issued a note to the Czechoslovakian government regarding the immediate conclusion of an agreement providing for the unquestionable occupation of Polish territory by Polish troops; An agreement on referendums is expected to follow in districts with a large proportion of the Polish population.
 The British public expected an imminent war, and Chamberlain`s « statesman`s gesture » was initially applauded. He was greeted as a hero by the royal family and invited to the balcony of Buckingham Palace before submitting the agreement to the British Parliament. The general positive reaction quickly re-established despite the royal patronage. However, there was resistance from the beginning. Clement Attlee and labor rejected the deal in alliance with the two Conservative MPs Duff Cooper and Vyvyan Adams, who until then had been seen as a hard and reactionary element in the Conservative party. On his way back from Munich, Chamberlain told an excited crowd at Heston airport: « It is peace for our time » and he praised the agreement he had signed with Hitler. This was the culmination of the policy of appeasement. Six months later, Hitler stopped his promises and ordered his armies to invade Prague. Within a year, Britain and France were at war with Germany.